Israel's defence minister
Israeli airstrikes on Gaza led to 250 Palestinian deaths and civilian infrastructure being decimated.
Israeli President Isaac Herzog is also due to visit Amman on Wednesday, two days after Abdullah made a rare trip to the Israeli-occupied West Bank to meet Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas.
The king called on Gantz to "lift all obstacles that could prevent (Muslims) from performing prayers" at Al-Aqsa and "prevent any provocations that could lead to escalation", the palace said in a statement.
"The upholding of calm requires respect for the rights of Muslims to perform their religious rites at Al-Aqsa," the third holiest site in Islam, said the king, whose country serves as custodian of the holy places in east Jerusalem as well as a mediator between Israel and the Palestinians.
Gantz said in the talks the "importance of maintaining regional stability and the necessity to combat terrorism".
On Sunday-Monday, Israel hosted a landmark meeting between Israel's foreign minister and his counterparts from four Arab countries which have ties with the Jewish state, as well as US Secretary of State Antony Blinken. The summit was described as "treachery" by Palestinians and other Arabs.
Jordan was the only Arab country with full Israeli ties that did not attend the Negev summit.
Blinken separately met Abbas, who condemned what he described as Western "double standards", saying they penalised Russia over its invasion of Ukraine while ignoring Israel's "crimes" against the Palestinians.