Addressing lawmakers in Jordan's national assembly, the monarch spoke of Jordan's duty in helping the Palestinian people until full statehood is achieved.
"Because we are the closest to them [Palestinians], we will strive to make them essential partners in regional projects. We do not accept their marginalisation, and we reiterate that economic empowerment is not a substitute for a political solution," he said.
King Abdullah's remarks come against the backdrop of soaring violence in the occupied Palestinian territories, where Israel has carried out numerous raids this year.
Israel is also set to form its most right-wing government in history, after Benjamin Netanyahu was officially tapped on Sunday to form a new government.
Now headed for office, Israel's far-right parties include figures who have openly called for annexation of Palestinian land and a breaking of the Status Quo at Jerusalem's holy sites.
In his speech, King Abdullah reaffirmed his commitment to Jordan's role as official custodian of the holy sites.
"In compliance with our historical responsibility, which we bear with all honesty, we will continue our role in protecting and caring for Islamic and Christian holy sites in Jerusalem, based on the Hashemite guardianship," the king said.